All rights of an international character involve international responsibility. But other consequences such as the taking of countermeasures are not automatic legal consequences of a breach: It results from the general legal personality of every State under international law, and from the fact that States are the principal bearers of international obligations see also States, Fundamental Rights and Duties.
Examples of such exceptions are the right of protection of an alien seaman on a ship flying the flag of the protecting State, an alien in the service of the armed forces of a claimant State, and stateless person or refuge who at the dates of the injury and presentation of the claim is lawfully and habitually resident in that state.
The situation is further complicated by the fact that the customary international law of state responsibility is to be understood as constituting a set of default rules, and that, in application of the lex specialis principle, in general states are free to agree that different rules should apply to specific obligations in force between them as regards, inter alia, attribution of conduct, when an obligation is breached, the content of any responsibility that arises, and questions of invocation.
This corresponds to SRA Fee notices being mailed in As a result, any attempt to cover even a majority of the most important issues that could potentially arise under the law of state responsibility is a daunting task.
Articles indirectly acknowledges in a savings clause also that states may owe secondary obligations to non-state actors such as individuals or international organisations. In particular there is no separate requirement of fault or wrongful intent for an internationally wrongful act to be held to exist.
Prior to final adoption of the Articles, a number of works aimed to provide more or less complete overviews of the law of state responsibility, although none of them are complete; for instance, Brownlie was the first part of a planned two-volume treatment of the law of state responsibility, with the unpublished second volume to follow covering circumstances precluding wrongfulness and countermeasures and questions of standing.
Nor do the Draft Articles specify any requirement of injury, damage, or harm to another State for responsibility to arise.
Gaetano Arangio-Ruizspecial rapporteur fromhelped clarify the consequences of breaches of international obligations. For more information or to contact an Oxford Sales Representative click here. The draft articles of thus consisted of three tranches, Part One, adopted in the period to under Ago, a few articles in Part Two Chapter I adopted in the period to under Riphagen, and the residue dealing with reparationscountermeasuresthe consequences of international crimes, and dispute settlement, adopted in the period to under Arangio-Ruiz.
Cessation of the Wrongful Act The first legal consequence of State responsibility under International law is that the wrongdoing State is obliged to cease the wrongful act, if it is continuing, and to offer appropriate assurances and guarantees on non- repetition.
There was no reconsideration of earlier articles at any point, so problems of co-ordination existed between the three groups for a table showing the evolution of the first reading text see Crawford  There was no reconsideration of earlier articles at any point, so problems of co-ordination existed between the three groups for a table showing the evolution of the first reading text see Crawford  It took nearly 45 years, more than thirty reports, and extensive work by five Special Rapporteurs in order for the International Law Commission to reach agreement on the final text of the Draft Articles as a whole, with commentaries.
State Responsibility in International Law. This has become an increasingly significant contemporary issue, as non-state actors such as Al Qaedamultinational corporationsand non-governmental organisations play greater international roles, and as governments privatise some traditional functions.
Any State other than an injured State is entitled to invoke the responsibility of another State in accordance with paragraph 2 if: The obligation breached is owed to a group of States including that State.
CAL FIRE has a legal responsibility to provide fire protection on all State Responsibility Area (SRA) lands, which are defined based on land ownership, population density and land use.
For example, CAL FIRE does not have responsibility for densely populated areas, agricultural lands, or lands administered by the federal government. Moreover just as the law of State treaties is applied by analogy to the treaties of other international persons (see also Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties  [‘VCLT’]), so State responsibility provides the frame of reference for considering other forms of international responsibility, in particular the responsibility of international.
The Scope of State Responsibility. 1 State responsibility is a cardinal institution of international law. It results from the general legal personality of every State under international law, and from the fact that States are the principal bearers of international obligations (see.
This volume, published soon after the final adoption of the ILC Articles incollects a number of scholarly articles on particular issues of the law of state responsibility, including historical evolution, the general theory of international responsibility, state crimes, and responsibility for injuries to aliens.
on the secondary rules of State responsibility: that is to say, the general conditions under international law for the State to be considered responsible for wrongful actions or omissions, and the legal consequences which flow there-from. The articles do not attempt to define the content of.State responsibility